Big Network Notices the Small Things

Jim Waltz

Traffic Marketplace doesn’t shy from innovation. It reaches 142 million unique users per month with its 30 billion ad impressions monthly. That’s more than 20 million leads and customers per year. It does this through targeted display ads, email and custom marketing. We asked president Jim Waltz about why people relationships are better than technology and how sales forces will change the face of ad networks.

Should ad networks innovate technologically? What are some things you’ve done?

Absolutely! Some of the industry’s more interesting innovations have been born and bred by ad networks, such as third-party ad serving, behavioral targeting, ad exchanges, etc. At Traffic Marketplace, we’ve focused recently on advanced audience identification, cross-channel ad delivery and bundled engagement tools to make ads in our network more compelling to consumers and more effective for our advertisers. Some of our unique innovations include embedded Click-to-Chat functionality, Flash-less rich media and the production of original content to build trust and credibility for brands and their marketing message.

As ad networks proliferate, where is your place in the growing galaxy?

The proliferation of ad networks is misunderstood and really depends on your definition of "ad network." There are three main types of ad networks: a few large, horizontal audience-based networks like us, many smaller vertical networks that specialize in a particular category, and a ton of small ad brokers. We’re also seeing a lot of smart companies act as exchange specialists, a sort of agency’s agency, leveraging their knowledge of exchanges and other large pools of liquidity to manage a big chunk of display budgets.

Do you think the industry is preparing for consolidation? Would more mergers be a good thing?

I don’t think it is, at least not in the way the industry is predicting. In fact, the number of ad networks is still growing. Most ad networks are structured in a way that they can quickly scale up or down based on demand. In addition, there have been very few compelling reasons for networks to hitch together. A more interesting trend is the growing consolidation of sales forces in general.

What do you mean by that?

Well, the media buying process is still very biological — in a recent industry study, nearly half of all buying decisions were greatly influenced by the quality of the relationship between the buyer and the seller. This works well for offline media buying, where there are only a few thousand magazines published, for example, but not so much online with millions of ad-supported websites. As online budgets increase, media buyers are forced to work with larger relationships that have enough scale and can afford to invest in cutting through the clutter of 200 unanswered cold calls a day. A lot of great Web publishers are often lost in the noise and are beginning to partner with networks that are already in the door.

As networks diversify their offerings (lead gen, email, display, etc.), can they maintain quality of service? How?

Service quality is a big problem when dealing with cross-channel campaigns if there is more than one system delivering the ads. But we’ve seen that if you can unify all channels under one ad delivery platform, I think service can not only be maintained, but significantly improved. The challenge then is really organizational — you need a very educated sales force with a lot of support from channel product experts. You also need great reporting and analytics.

What can ad networks look forward to in the future?

Ad networks won’t exist as we know them today — they will look completely different over time. As the marketplace becomes more transparent, sales forces consolidate, and the buying and selling process becomes more digital, there’s very little left to differentiate one network from another. At that point I think ad networks will evolve in two directions: those aligned with buyers as service providers with specific expertise that taps into the marketplace on behalf of advertisers, or those aligned with sellers as extensions of exclusive, proprietary content. But these changes are predicated on a massive transformation of the online media buying and selling process.

Working with Performance Marketing Networks

For Publishers and Advertisers

The number of performance marketing networks has gone through the roof in the last year as the technology needed has become more accessible. There’s no reason not to work with several networks at once but you should bear the following points in mind:

For Publishers:

  • Talk to one of the affiliate managers. They’re the people who can really make a difference to your earning capacity.
  • Examine their payment policies and check out the forums to see if there have been any payment problems.
  • Compare their offers to others in the industry. The highest paying offer isn’t always the best. Conversions are what counts.
  • Do a reputation check by talking to industry colleagues. There are lots of ways networks can rip off their affiliates, so be aware.
  • For Advertisers:

  • The rule of thumb is that CPS gives you higher quality, CPA greater quantity. All things being equal the difference should simply depend on your conversion rate.
  • Check everything you can: applicants, lead quality, sub-IDs, ROI by publisher, etc. Don’t rely just on the network to pick up problems.
  • Look at the network’s fraud prevention systems and at the staff running them. Fraud is widely prevalent and you need a network that is alert and protecting your interests.
  • Look at where the traffic is coming from and what control you have over it. Be careful of networks that are simply acting as brokers or that are buying cheap traffic from unknown sources.

The Ad Network Shuffle

Eric Reyes

Everyone has an opinion about ad networks, especially those working for one of the estimated 400-plus large and small shops in the U.S. And these networks do many different things. Vertical ad networks are different from big, horizontal ad networks. The behavioral targeting networks are different from up-and coming semantic targeting networks. If you travel the hushed halls of these ad networks, the whispers seem to seep through the walls: The crash is coming! The crash is coming!


While 2008 and most of 2009 were considered the worst of times for most industries during the recent economic crisis, for the ad world, specifically the ad network universe, the hurt, experts predict, will hit in 2010 or 2011. But even so, there are just as many experts who say the ad network marketplace is robust and will continue to be so. Just look at the sheer number of us, they say. In fact, a recent survey by Collective Media found that advertisers and interactive agencies continue to invest in ad networks. Up to 90 percent of those surveyed said they want to work with ad networks this year. That is about 5 percent more than the past year. The survey also found that more than half said they could spend up to 15 percent of their online budgets for ad networks.

Some disagree that it is all sweetness and light, going as far as to say there is an ad network bubble — that no market can sustain the number of companies all doing essentially the same thing. Even in the face of the best earnings, the utter abundance of ad networks will lead to mergers, closings, bankruptcy. But that was a year ago and the ad networks are still here. In fact, niche ad networks have raised $1.5 billion in the last five years from venture capitalists, according to VentureSource. It also states that the top 25 companies have taken nearly $1.2 billion of that total. More than three-quarters of that cash has been raised in the past three years. That’s just new companies and not the more than $250 million that went to Adify, Blue Lithium, Quigo, Tacoda, Third Screen Media and others.

So, where’s the panic coming from? There were a few high-profile flameouts in the last year or so that got some attention. Most notably, early last year, ESPN let go of all its ad networks it was working with, saying, essentially, that it didn’t like the lack of control it had over the kind of ads being served. Around the same time, the Washington Post shuttered its 16-month-old blog ad network, citing the "innovation" that was coming.

In these two cases, the ad networks may have been underperforming for the bean counters, but what seemed to irk them more was that the ad networks dealt in "remnant" inventory and that the automated placement of the unsold inventory amounted to tarnishing the host site’s value. At the time, Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia president Wenda Harris Millard infamously stated that selling Web inventory like "pork bellies" would cheapen brands.

That name-calling did not seem to hurt the fortunes of ad networks, as they continued to see healthy ad spend. "The market itself can bear [hundreds of ad networks], since there is clearly demand right now which I don’t see diminishing," said Michael Sprouse, CMO at Epic Advertising. "We have believed that the number of ad networks will continue to grow into the many thousands," said Paul Edmondson, CEO of Yield-Build. "Super-large ad networks will prefer to have direct relationships with publishers, but will go to exchanges for some inventory."

In fact, firms such as eMarketer see no end in sight. It predicts U.S. online ad spend to exceed $50 billion in 2012. It was $21.1 billion in 2007. That’s the spend on everything online-related, including display ads, video, classified, search ads and lead generation, but not mobile ad spend. Warren Lee, partner at Canaan Partners, noted two reasons ad networks continue to thrive: The hours people spend online just keep going up — 12 hours per week, according to a Forrester survey. This, of course, encourages online ad spend. The second reason is that the number of websites keeps going up. This makes it difficult for advertisers and agencies to know which sites to work with. This is where ad networks help out.

Some believe that ad networks are still riding high simply because agencies have yet to launch in earnest their own in-house networks. Predictions state that 2010 and 2011 will be the challenging years as agencies divert their spend into their own systems. If an agency does only in-house work and sells one-quarter of the inventory that an outside network did, but at a 10 times better CPM, it is a money-maker. With online advertising expected to experience continued growth into the next decade, ad networks doing some simple math may prove or disprove their viability. Layoffs, on the other hand, will be inevitable as networks that bring in between $20 million and $40 million and have more than 100 employees find they simply can’t pay that many people with what they bring in. Panic will ensue.

And what comes with panic — consolidation. "There will no doubt be consolidation in the ad network market," said Dave Martin, vice president of interactive media at Ignite. "Only the best will survive and they will likely become part of larger media companies who can compliment their offerings with cost-effective reach."

J. P. Morgan’s 2009 investment guide also predicts the fickle finger of the merger fates. The guide says, "We saw large portals make significant investments and acquisitions to strengthen their foothold in the ad network space. We believe large portals are naturally well positioned, as it is easier for both advertisers and publishers to fulfill all of their needs on fewer platforms, while a consolidated network yields greater leverage of technology and advertiser/publisher relationships."

"So, are ad networks dying?" asked Julia Casale-Amorim, CMO of Casale Media. "Yes, some ad networks are dying, but the species is hardly facing extinction." While we haven’t witnessed any high-profile exterminations, some experts do hear the sound of the largest ad networks sharpening their carving knives. "The impetus for acquisition is obvious," said Emily Riley, online advertising analyst at Jupiter Research. "For the conglomerates, the potential to improve their portfolio of offerings to both advertisers and publishers as well as overpower their competition, theoretically lies in the control of ad servers and ad networks."

In the opinion of Casale-Amorim, the majority of "these infantile networks use the same technology, the same platforms, and the same approach — each applying a different ‘sales spin’ to what are essentially identical offerings." She added that many traffic in "air." And as prices for premium-placed CPM have risen, the selling point of cheap cost-per-thousand diminishes to the smallest pinprick. If a big player such as ValueClick wants 25-cent CPM, why pay for a $10 CPM for premium placement? "Anyone who’s trying to tell you that reach is a key differentiator, you need to ask them ‘what else?’ It’s much more complicated than that," said Jordan Rohan, managing partner at Clearmeadow Partners.

The J.P. Morgan report put it rather bluntly: "We expect larger players to gain share, and we think there may be further consolidation among private companies. We also see some companies likely closing their business."

The prognosis is not as grim as that, not if all the interested players can help keep ad networks plentiful and pellucid. Publishers, for example, don’t want to work with 15 or 20 different ad networks and spend the time it takes to manage the relationships. In fact, ad network optimization is now a legitimate business venture thanks to the proliferation of networks. For media buyers, they are looking more at results and hard data, since the song of the networks’ sales pitch sounds the same no matter who they are talking to. Even the economy gets some of the blame, for keeping the venture capital money at bay, just when ad networks need it to grow to the next level.

The next phase in the life of ad networks is undetermined. Some consensus involves agencies and exchanges. "Going forward, I see two emerging trends driving change in the nearterm," said John Nardone, CEO of [x+1]. "First, ad exchanges will provide direct access to buyers, reducing the need for a sales force. Second, major agency holding companies like Omnicom and WPP will launch private ad networks, as they continue to acquire network infrastructure and targeting technology and platforms. They’ll bring a hard-to-beat combination of inventory aggregation and ad targeting capabilities."

Ad exchanges, some say, will make it easy for people to create an ad network and then quickly and cheaply aggregate unsold inventory. Exchanges can find all that cheap inventory very quickly and are quite efficient and doing it as long as "quality" is not a concern. Since media buyers do not have time to sort through all the different content, the quality of the placement may suffer. It is undetermined whether exchanges will shorten the life of ad networks.

If consolidation accelerates, some suggest looking into ad network profit margins. Rohan noted that " has 47 percent margins on 116 million uniques, ValueClick has 45 percent margins. Intermediaries receive about 45 cents for every dollar — you’re paying them almost half of your spend." He added that many ad networks tout their nonexistent transparency. "Total transparency would mean that they transfer terabytes of data to you that you would have no idea what to do with," Rohan said. He said that useful transparency for media buyers would be data-filtered to tell you the context surrounding the online conversions. "Typically you don’t know where all the conversions came from. Which sites did they visit, how many impressions before they converted, these are the kinds of data you need."

The Online Publishers Association (OPA) threw a monkey wrench into the party in August when it released a study that basically said ad spend through ad networks was useless. The OPA study states that ads placed through ad networks and portals earned the smallest change for branding metrics, and in some cases made no difference at all. Pam Horan, president of OPA, said in the press, "Different environments produce different results."

However the wind blows, ad networks seem to be here to stay. They have some righteous defenders, and growth or consolidation may depend on the rate of mend to the U.S. economy. "There are a host of networks that focus on adding value beyond supply aggregation in the equation that will not only exist, but thrive and grow," said Michael Katz, president of InterClick. "It’s naive to underestimate networks, which tend to be hotbeds for innovation. And it’s instructive that the largest agency-holding companies are all building networks."

Eric Reyes is editor of the Online Advertising Blue Book.

True Blue

Editor’s Letter

In digital marketing, the sky’s the limit and the sky is blue. Welcome to the creation and launch of ideas, concepts, and conversation all encompassed in the Online Advertising Bluebook – welcome to the future!


With 400-plus ad networks plugging along and digital agencies and display ad companies catching clients like they were dew off the heather, it certainly seems that the sky is the limit.  The online advertising network is the engine that could — and will continue to chug along. In this recovering economy, the online advertising universe has taken only the smallest of hits. You can all rest easy now, right? No way. The tough climb is yet to come. As agencies get their own in-house networks up, the real competition begins. As smaller, yet successful, networks get bought by larger networks, the race for business begins. As oversight creeps into the daily lives of networks, so goes the wild-west attitude.

What all this means to ad networks, large and small, depends on who you talk to. In this first issue of the Online Advertising Blue Book, we introduce you to some of the inspirational players and the trends to look out for. Video ad networks, for example, are up and coming, yet flying under the radar — until now. Networks that deal in managing your network relationships are beginning to form. And while there is talk of an ad network bubble, some predict there is enough market for thousands of ad networks and not just hundreds.

We also talked candidly to some of the leaders at networks — those who manage ads in video games, those who deal only in vertical Web properties, and those who have seen it all and are expecting an industry shakeout. Some industry watchers are posing the question, are ad networks dying? Yes, they say, some ad networks are dying, but the industry is hardly facing extinction. Some say that the need for acquisition is obvious, and that the power to make advertisers and publishers more successful lies in the control of ad servers and ad networks.

Whoever holds all the marbles is not necessarily the winner. Witness the emergence of ad exchanges that provide direct access to buyers, making some sales forces redundant. Ad exchanges, some say, will make it easy for firms to create an ad network and then quickly and inexpensively aggregate unsold inventory. Exchanges can find cheap inventory very quickly and are efficient at doing it. It is uncertain whether exchanges will threaten or enhance the life of ad networks.

Most ad networks know they have challenges ahead. As the economy grows more robust, the networks that don’t innovate, acquire or mature will see clouds on the horizon.

Technology will become ever more important, both as advertisers and agencies demand more control and greater transparency, and as advances are made with interoperability and exchange of data between the various parties. Prices are going to be set in real-time, inventories are going to be sliced and diced a million ways, and campaign analytics and management tools are going to become increasingly sophisticated.

We have tried in this launch edition to introduce ideas and concepts; to begin a conversation. The conversation continues at, where if you run your own network you can claim it and fill out a complete network profile to promote your organization’s capabilities to our readers. For agencies and advertisers the web site is an invaluable resource for finding new solutions partners and tracking changes in the industry. And for publishers seeking to optimize their advertising and maximize revenues, is the place to learn more.

For advertiser and agency, for publisher and affiliate, for network and exchange, the future is here. The future is exciting. The future is blue.

Welcome to the future. Welcome to the Online Advertising BLUE BOOK.

Bluebook Top 20

Bluebook Top 20

Bluebook’s Top 20 Performance Marketing Networks and Exchanges
The Top 20 list is the result of aggregating expert views, traffic data, measures of industry influence and many other pieces of information we researched. The resulting top 20 selection has generated a lot of conversations and even disagreements in our office but represents our view of the best networks and exchanges around.

1 MediaTrust Recently named the 9th fastest growing private companyin the USA by Inc. magazine -several other networks here appear on the Inc. 500 -Peter Bordes´ MediaTrust seems to be able to do no wrong. It has a great reputation, he leads admirably and their advertisers and publishers stick around. What´s not to like?
2 ShareASale Brian Littleton isalegend inthe affiliatemarketing community and his network reflects his reputation with 2,500 merchants and multiple industryawards.
3 oneNetworkDirect Digital River´s oneNetworkDirect is the leader in software sales with the industry´s best networktechnologyand offices worldwide.
4 Hydra Network On the Inc. 500 list three years running, Hydra is one of the biggest CPA networks and is wellregarded byeverybody we know. Atop network.
5 Epic Advertising Epic has grown remarkably and now claims 45,000+ publishers, 1,400 advertisers withcomingtraffic from over 200countries.
6 CPXInteractive Recently ranked #154on Inc. magazine´s list ofthe fastest growing companies in the USA. Claims 30 billion impressions per month across 60+ countries.
7 IntegraClick/ ClickBooth Ranked #5 on the Inc. 500 list. ClickBooth has proven itself to publishers and advertisers over the last couple of years and is now regarded as one of the industryleaders. Focuses on exclusiveoffers.
8 Commission Junction The biggest affiliatenetworkin the USA. PartofValueClick. One ofthe Big Three. Presents the CJYou Awards everyyear.
9 NeverBlue ACanadian networkthat is strong in lead-gen worldwide. Popular with high-performing affiliates.
10 LeadPile LeadPile is a lead exchange rather than a network. Itfinds its place in this list because ofits size, growth and the simplicity it offers both buyers and sellers ofleads.
11 The affiliate marketing arm ofAOL´s unit. Global reach.
12 LinkShare LinkShare´s ownership by the Japanese companyRakuten shows itself in their dedicated networks for the UK, Canda and Japan, and their strong foreign language and currencycapabilities.
13 Pepperjam Kris Jones has built Pepperjam into an online marketing powerhouse offering a wide range ofinteractive agencyservices.
14 zanox Europe´s biggest affiliate network. Part ofthe Axel Springer news/magazine media group in Germany.
15 COPEAC Ranked #320 on the Inc. 500 list. Part ofIntermarkMedia. Strong in lead-gen. Fast growing with 30,000 affiliates claimed.
16 Google Affiliate Network Known as Doubleclick Performics prior to Google´s acquisition in 2007, the Google Affiliate Network is Google´s affiliate network. What else is there to say?
17 MarketLeverage ACPAnetworkpopular with affiliates, Market Leverage has built itself a good reputation for result. Produces MLTV, aTVshow for affiliatemarketers.
18 ClickBank This venerable affiliate network that specializes in digital, downloadableproducts is now10 years old and stillgoing strong.Everypublisher should have a ClickBank account.
19 Max Bounty A smaller network that gets a lot of play with bigger affiliates and offers advertisers acost-effectiveCPAsolution.
20 Media Whiz 30,000 publishers, 3,000 advertisers, and a claimed $100 million in publisher payments in 2007. Media Whiz is strong in email and lead-gen.